Did this article resolve your question/issue?



Performance improvement when new biclusters are added

« Go Back


TitlePerformance improvement when new biclusters are added
URL NamePerformance-improvement-BIGROW-000073407
Article Number000175065
EnvironmentProduct: OpenEdge
Version: 11.3x and later, 12.x
OS: AIX, Solaris, Windows, Linux
Question/Problem Description
Performance improvement at runtime when biclusters are added to the bi chain and when using BIGROW to pre-extend the bi file

Starting a database is time consuming in a production environment with large bicluster sizes.  
Performance time to start a database after a truncate bi is slower when a large bi-cluster size is used
The time to pre-grow the bi file with BIGROW delays initial database access time
Using BIGROW to pre-format large bi clusters varies on some platforms but not as much on others

Baseline bi-clustersize test examples:
  • After truncating the bi file to assign a larger bicluster size 81920, it takes 20 minutes to start the database with 4 bi clusters.
  • After truncating the bi file to increase the bicluster size 262144, it takes 50 minutes to pre-grow 8 clusters with PROUTIL -C BIGROW 4 (8 in total)
Steps to Reproduce
Clarifying Information
Error Message
Defect NumberEnhancement OE00203777 / PSC00230040
Enhancement Number

BICLUSTERS Performance Improvement

BIGROW uses a buffered file handle to grow the bi file. The buffered file handle does unbuffered I/O which extends the bi file with formatted bi clusters. It is this which which adds additional time to the sync bi file on completion.

OpenEdge 11.3.0 reworked this area on Solaris and AIX platforms:
  • BI extents written are flushed from the file system cache with a fdatasync() call and buffered I/O is only used again once the bi clusters grow/format has finished.
  • This rework extends to the runtime database when for example, a long running transaction necessitates new bi-clusters need to be added to the double-linked BI Chain at Checkpoint time.
This performance improvement varied on some platforms but not as much on others, but overall better. In OpenEdge 11.3 for Windows and Linux:
  • Windows and Linux still extend files unbuffered.  
  • To improve the performance it's advisable to pre-grow the BI file before starting the database to site-specific bi sizes, thereby negating the need to extend the bi file at runtime.  
  • Adding the non-raw (-r) parameter will improve the BIGROW time by not needing to sync the bi file writes from OS cache when the grow/format is complete:  proutil <dbname> -C bigrow <n> -r
  • By not needing to sync the bi files when the grow/format is complete, this gives an indication of approximately the difference that could be achieved with/without the additional time it takes to sync the bi files on completion (without the non-raw parameter).
In OpenEdge 11.7.6 and OpenEdge 12.1, all certified platforms
This bi cluster performance optimization was reworked and made available on all platforms including Linux and Windows. All supported platforms were enhanced to improve performance times when extending the bi file with formatted clusters. Article:

The "Furgal Test"

Another use-case for BIGROW is what has commonly been referred to as the "Furgal Test", to measure disk speed specifically by timing how long it takes to grow a bi file of a certain size on disk. This benchmark provides a quick and easy means to uniformly gather information about synchronous IO performance. The results enable:
a) Comparative BIGROW performance results with other environments when investigating bottlenecks on I/O or CPU that are impacting our ability to write changes to disk in a timely fashion. For example when Checkpoint metrics show Sync Time as a fair proportion of the Checkpoint Duration timings.
b) A litmus test of sorts. While bigrow is sequential and database I/O is completely random, experience has shown a strong correlation between long times to 'simply' preformat and extend the bi cluster chain and poor application/database performance.
c) To keep an eye on infrastructure trends that influence OpenEdge performance. This (historic or environment comparative ) evidence provides a reliable indicator of storage implementation and/or configuration issues which lead back to database/application performance problems. When storage vendors deny changing anything, this claim can confidently be rebutted with at least the "Furgal test" metrics.
In order to execute this unbuffered I/O test, the improvement described above needs to be disabled by using an undocumented parameter: -zextendSyncIO.
This parameter is not ever expected to be needed otherwise, unless bigrow is being used as a benchmark on platforms running an OpenEdge version with this performance improvement.

Example: "Furgal Test" re-format 96 MB disk space to pre-allocate 6 bi clusters
  • To verify a minimum of 10 MB/Second sequential write speed measured using a BIGROW benchmark
  • Add the 4 default bi clusters to the bi grow value specified, to pre-grow the required number of bi clusters
  • A BIGROW benchmark widely accepted over the years and across many different storage systems:
    It should take no longer than 10 seconds to write a 100 MB BI file.
UNIX:  16 MB bi clustersize with 1024 16 KB bi blocks
proutil <dbname> -C truncate bi -bi 16384 -biblocksize 16
time -p proutil <dbname> -C bigrow 2 [ -zextendSyncIO ]

Windows: 16 MB bi clustersize with 2048 8 KB bi blocks
proutil <dbname> -C truncate bi -bi 16384 -biblocksize 8
timer.bat "proutil <dbname> -C bigrow 2 [ -zextendSyncIO ]
REM: timer.bat to fake UNIX 'time'
@echo off
echo %time% < nul
cmd /c %1
echo %time% < nul

When sequential write speed is not optimal and vendors provide metrics to refute results, other tools outside of Progress will provide supporting evidence. One use-case example is recorded in Article:
Last Modified Date11/20/2020 6:57 AM
Disclaimer The origins of the information on this site may be internal or external to Progress Software Corporation (“Progress”). Progress Software Corporation makes all reasonable efforts to verify this information. However, the information provided is for your information only. Progress Software Corporation makes no explicit or implied claims to the validity of this information.

Any sample code provided on this site is not supported under any Progress support program or service. The sample code is provided on an "AS IS" basis. Progress makes no warranties, express or implied, and disclaims all implied warranties including, without limitation, the implied warranties of merchantability or of fitness for a particular purpose. The entire risk arising out of the use or performance of the sample code is borne by the user. In no event shall Progress, its employees, or anyone else involved in the creation, production, or delivery of the code be liable for any damages whatsoever (including, without limitation, damages for loss of business profits, business interruption, loss of business information, or other pecuniary loss) arising out of the use of or inability to use the sample code, even if Progress has been advised of the possibility of such damages.